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ASCA Conference Review 2016

[cs_content][cs_section parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 45px 0px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px;”][cs_text]After recently attending the Australian Strength and Conditioning Conference 2016 in Melbourne, I thought I would put down a couple of the key take home messages I learnt.

Brett Barthomlew: The impact of influence
“The future belongs to the few of us still willing to get our hands dirty”

The real key ‘variables & metrics’ of influence and behaviour

Human Nature
‐ Drives and Desires
‐ Interpersonal
‐ Intrapersonal
Environment (physical surroundings)
‐ Colour
‐ Music
‐ Infrastructure
‐ Set standard or beliefs of the team, what is expected?
‐ How stress, chaos and fear affect us

“Illuminating the true roots of the art of coaching: a PEOPLE
based approach that focuses on environment,
communication, psychology and relationships. What
influences them, optimizes them & ignites them”.

“Conscious Coaching” = Connecting people, Purpose & Programming


Ron McKeefery: Components of a successful career in S&C

“Athletes dont care what you know, until they know how much you care”.

To be a successful S&C coach you need to be

  • A technician
  • A manager
  • An entrepreneur

Are you a principle based coach or philosophy based coach?

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but principles are few. The man who grasps principles can successfully select his own methods. The man who tries methods, ignoring principles, is sure to have trouble.” ralph waldo emerson

Always be seeking opportunities to ‘sharpen the sword’ – becoming a better coach.

Always keep your FOCUS on the end goal



Jill Cook: Exercise rehab for tendinopathy 


Tendons need to load to heal

Phase 1 – Isometrics

  • Sustained contraction with heavy load – 40-60 sec holds

Phase 2 – Strength

  • initially isolated muscle exercises are best
  • work on any muscle deficits  within the kinetic chain

Phase 3 – Energy storage

  • working with faster speeds just at body weight, getting the tendon use to absorbing  force

Phase 4 – Energy storage and release

  • letting the tendon now absorb and then express force
  • end stage return to play


Graeme Close: CHO requirements for the elite athlete

You need to periodise your CHO and fat intake dependent on the training program. Let the demands of the day dictate your energy needs. By lowering carbs on rest days, allows us to maximise training adaptations. Training/game days need high energy intake/loading.


Greg Haff: Cluster sets

Cluster sets allow for heavier loads to be lifted while maintaining power output across the entire set.

Dan Baker: Using velocity measures to improve resistance training

Velocity can be used to prescribe resistances or Velocity can “influence” programming, training and coaching decisions

Your first/best rep tells you your strength level for that day, Your last rep in the set tells you your acute fatigue level and how close that set is to failure or max effort ~ what RPE it is. By “knowing” these two velocity scores, training weights and set RPE levels are easy to monitor and prescribe.

In-season strength training – to ensure complete recover within 48 hours post weight training complete heavy loads but keep fast velocity (intent to move) e.g. sets of 3 reps at a 6RM.


Darren Burgess: Load monitoring 

“Fitness will not ever win a title, but it may lose you one”

We can not predict when injuries will happen.

But we can reduce the risk of injuries occurring.

By regular exposure to high speeds it helps decrease the risk of an injury.

One major variable to consider is the weekly change in training load. You don’t want anymore than a 10-15% change to ensure a low risk of injuries.

The job of the S&C is to prepare the athletes for the absolute worse case scenario faced in a game, so that if that does occur they can cope with it.

Lachlan Wilmot: From  boys to Giants

“sharpen the sword, don’t turn them in to an archer”

What did the athlete get drafted for? Make their strengths even stronger, and just improve their weaknesses so it isn’t an impact on the team. You don’t want a team of averages….

It takes at least 3 years to build an AFL body

First year – basic movement patterns – resilience to training loads, but in to LTAD, build work capacity

Second year – strength development, complex lifting, load absorption over power production

Third year – max strength, power production, mass stabilisation

Fourth year – max strength


Rachel Balkovec: The final say on movement correction

“A corrective exercise is only corrective if it is being done correctly”

Train athletes for sport skill on the field, train athletes for athleticism in the weight room.

In order to maintain athleticism, move through a full range of motion. If your athlete can’t get into the right position to squat, it’s not the squat, it’s the body. Your athlete should be able to move pain free through a full range of motion BEFORE adding strength and worrying about power.


Justin Crow: Antifragile – training to succeed in a world of uncertainty 

“you can’t predict the future”

When faced with a problem you have three options:

  1. Fragile – When faced with the problem they crumble
  2. Resilient – when faced with a problem, get it done at an average level. Next  problem is they are no better off, haven’t learnt.
  3. Antifragile – When faced with a problem they have an all out effort aiming for success, knowing that the may fail. if they do fail, learn from mistakes to improve next time.

Mo Farah example – what options did he have at the recent Olympics?

Make them fail – take the players to a really hard place/session. Then debrief post session


Anthony Shield: Hamstring injury and the role of strength training

74% of hamstring injuries occur during high speed

83% of injuries occur with the biceps femoris long head

If your hamstrings are weak and made up from short fascicles 8 times more likely to get injured.

Within the AFL weaker individuals in a Nordic hamstring test are 4.4 times more likely to get injured.

Post injury it is crucial to spend time working on eccentric strength

You need to complete both Knee flexion and hip extension exercises to strengthen the hamstrings.

“Adult males should be able to get scores above 400N on an eccentric hamstring test, if they can’t…… shame them”


There were many more great presentations and take home messages, but these were the key ones for me. Keen to hear your thoughts on it all, and if you were at the conference, please share your highlights.[/cs_text][/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][/cs_content]

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Strength training for Runners

Strength training for Runners



Should runners complete any form of strength training???

Within the running community this is often a very topical question. One side of thought thinks that strength training will slow them down and impact their ability to cover long kms, while the other side swear by it and think it plays a major role in injury prevention and performance enhancement. But which side of thought is right?

Everyone understands that strength plays a very important role in a 100m sprinters preparation but it isn’t as well recognised that longer distance athletes complete A LOT of strength work too!

In my point of view as a Strength and Conditioning Coach I think that strength training plays a crucial role in a runner’s preparation!

How does Strength training benefit a runner?

There are many ways in which strength training can benefit runners. A stronger muscle will able to perform at higher intestines and for longer durations. Enabling the athlete to push their body even further and improve their performance.

Through the use of plyometrics, a stronger runner will also be able to get more of a contribution  from their  tendons (which is a non metabolic tissue). This means they will be able run at the same speed with less of a metabolic cost – almost like they have stored energy/springs in their legs. A stronger runner is also more resilient to injury.

As with any change to a training program though, it needs to be done with caution, don’t just jump straight in head first! Gradually introduce strength work into your currently schedule.


What is Strength Training?  

First of all lets actually look at what can come under the banner of ‘strength training’. Strength training can include anything that involves a muscle performing a contracting against a resistance, this can either be a concentric/eccentric/isometric/isokentic contraction. The main ways a runner needs to be aware of are the first three. We then need to think about how to strengthen these different muscle contractions. Now there are many many modes we can use to do this.

rad 12For the purpose of this article I am going to keep it to three key areas:

  • Plyometrics
  • Weight training
  • Pilates



Plyometrics really became involved in an athletes preparation after the 1970’s when it was noted that the Russians were using basic forms of it in the lead up to competitions.

Basically it is any movement in which the body is trying to exert maximum force as quickly as possible when transitioning from an eccentric muscle contraction (muscle lengthening) to a concentric contraction (muscle shortening). This phenomenon is also referred to as the ‘stretch-shortening cycle.

The best example I have for this is watching a Kangaroo. How they easily transition from bounce to bounce almost as though they have got springs stored in their feet. This is what plyometrics are trying to develop – By increasing the strength and elasticity of the athlete’s tendons.

From a running point of view – If you have got these mini stored ‘springs’ in your legs it makes you a more efficient runner. Instead of always expending lots of energy with each stride the stored elasticity helps to propel your forward. Also helping with increase speed and jump height.

Examples of Plyometric exercises:

  • Drop jumps
  • Hopping – single and double leg
  • Bounding
  • Speed bounding
  • Use of hurdles

click through to 1:18 in this video to watch some old school plyo drills

Weight Training

The first thing we need to master with the athlete’s weight training is their movement efficiency. No point loading up an athlete that can not move. Some key things to look at here:

  • Can the athlete squat? what is their range of motion? any major restrictions?
  • Can the athlete hip hinge? pivot their weight from the hips?
  • Single leg balance? can they control their weight on one leg?
  • Muscle activation can they switch on the major muscles? deep core muscles , glutes?

Once the athlete can master these, then we can consider loading some movements. When I look at weight training for a runner some key things they need to work on are:

Single leg control – majority of the time they are on one leg so need to be strong in this position. Great proprioception through the hip/knee/ankle, glute control preventing the knee from internally rotating (can lead to injuries-thats of another article though)

Posterior chain – the main muscles on the back of the athlete are what drive the running motion – calves, hamstrings and glutes.

Torso and Hips – this is a key area often neglected and combines all the muscles involved around the hip complex. Being able to keep the hips relatively stable during a run can help with efficiency and reduce injury risk.

Examples of weight training exercises for a runner:

  • Squat
  • Deadlift13731881_613118782179882_6900720781989748895_o
  • Lunge
  • Single leg squat
  • Single leg arabesque
  • Single leg Calf raise
  • Glute bridge
  • Side hold/bridge


Now this isn’t my area of expertise and would certain refer to an Exercise Physiologist for Pilates, but it does need to be mentioned in this post. This is taken from a previous article AEP Jess Luke wrote for me. Pilates is based on 5 principles

1. Relaxation : Undertaking exercise in a relaxed state helps to relieve stress, lower blood pressure and heart rate and lower the chances of potential injury whilst undertaking exercise

2. Concentration: Increased focus on movement helps to perform the movement correctly and aids in proprioception for movement sequencing.

3. Alignment: Correct alignment is required when the body is in motion to promote efficient motor patterning. Poor motor control can lead to potential injury and compensatory patterns to occur

4. Breathing: Breathing correctly can be the difference between straining to complete the exercise and completing it easily. Correct breath to movement patterning helps to reduce unnecessary tension within the body and takes pressure off key supporting structures such as the pelvic floor and diaphragm.

5. Centring: The centre of our bodies, our core, is the foundation of our movement. For the purpose of this blog, the core consists of the lumbo-pelvic hip complex and the rib complex; along with several key muscles involved in each. Becoming aware of the coordination between the core areas enables us to establish efficient movement patterns.

In order to increase neural connection between the brain and the muscle, pilates consists of increased repetitions at a lighter intensity in order to promote neural activation to problematic areas whilst not promoting recruitment of currently dominant compensation patterns (Eg you may be using your hip flexors for hip extension!!). By isolating the correct muscles in the correct sequence over and over again, we strengthen our neural hardwiring of how to undertake that movement correctly. The stronger these correct neural connections are, the more efficient your muscles will work to undertake a movement.



Hopefully this article outlines the importance that Strength Training can play for a runner. I would certainly recommend to any runner that they complete some form of strength training twice a week to compliment their running.



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Australian Football – Talent Identification: Movement Assessment

[x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][/x_row][/x_section][x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_text]With the 2016 AFL Draft not too far away, the best young talent in the country is working hard to get the attention of club recruiters in the hope of landing a spot on an AFL list.

I am going to be discussing some factors that impact a players draft ability throughout a couple of blog posts.

What sets one player a part from the next?

Obviously there are many factors that come in to this! As you can see below here are some of the things recruiters are looking at for each athlete:[/x_text][/x_column][/x_row][/x_section][x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][/x_row][/x_section][x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_text]Specifically this article is going to be looking at the Physical/Physiological predictors in talent identification.
The area of the athlete’s development that a Strength and Conditioning Coach can directly impact.

Carl Woods (PhD) is a leading researcher in the area of talent identification and has recently published an article: Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Funda- mental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment.The article compares Under 18 footballers – 25 ‘talent identified” (state academy athletes) against 25 non-talent identified (state based competition representatives) and attempts to determine if a basic Movement Assessment test can discriminate between the two groups of athletes.
Movements completed were:
* Overhead Squat
* Lunge- right leg
* Lunge – left leg
* Romanian Deadlift (RDL)- right leg
* Romanian Deadlift (RDL) – left leg
* Push up

Each movement was then scored based on the skill execution from 1 to 3. With 3 being perfect.

There were some very interesting findings – with the score obtained on four of the six movement criterions demonstrating between group mean differences in favour of the talent identified players. However the Overhead squat was the one movement that was the best at splitting the difference between the two groups.

Why are these movements important?

Being competent in the movements lays a solid foundation for the athlete to develop on. Enabling them to get in to the required positions during the game and also enabling more advanced strength work in the gym.
Overhead squat – working on bilateral pelvic stability, thoracic extension, ankle dorsi flexion and lower body strength.
Lunge – controlling the movement unilaterally, glute strength to prevent the hip from dropping and the knee falling in – anterior chain focus.
S/L RDL – posterior chain focus- being able to maintain unilateral stability through the hip/knee/ankle.
Push up – the most basic upper body push exercise. Needs to be mastered before we considering to load the movement.

What do the results from this study mean?

* Coaches working with junior aussie rules athletes should now understand the importance of movement competence and the benefits it can have for the athlete, both in the gym and on the field.

* Maybe some form of Movement Assessment should be used more often in talent identification.

* It was also noted in the article that the results in this study were consider ‘poor’ when compared to that of senior AFL players. Really highlighting the importance of competent movers!

* Across all of the tests the one exercise that scored the lowest was the single leg RDL – a crucial exercise to master, to help strengthen the posterior chain, and improve control through the hips.

[/x_text][/x_column][/x_row][/x_section][x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/2″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/2″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_image type=”none” src=”” alt=”” link=”false” href=”#” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””][/x_column][/x_row][/x_section][x_section style=”margin: 0px 0px 0px 0px; padding: 45px 0px 45px 0px; “][x_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” bg_color=”” style=”margin: 0px auto 0px auto; padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_column bg_color=”” type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px 0px 0px 0px; “][x_text]If you are interested in reading the full article –

Woods, C., Banyard, H., McKeown, I., Fransen, J., & Robertson, S. (2016). Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 15, 548-553.


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The Relationship between Club Strength and Conditioning Coaches with contracted athletes and Private Strength and Conditioning Facilities.


There is a growing number of private strength and conditioning (S&C) facilities opening up throughout Australia. This is a positive occurrence as athletes who historically would not have access to adequate physical preparation are exposed to certified coaches! However, there is a question that should be addressed as the private S&C sector continues to grow.
Is it appropriate for a contracted athlete to be attending a private S&C business when there is a qualified S&C coach employed by the club?
This is an interesting debate, and one where my opinion is formed by having worked on both sides of the question.

First lets start out by clarifying what a contracted athlete is. A contracted athlete is someone that has a signed contract at a sporting club, specifically at a club where an S&C coach is also contracted to design and implement programs to improve the physical component of performance. Lets examine this question from three perspectives

The S&C coach for the club:
In a situation where there is an S&C coach employed at the club, the club administration and the head coach have trusted the S&C coach to maximize the physical preparation of all athletes in the team. Responsibilities of the S&C coach in this environment are to design and deliver the strength program, design and deliver the aerobic conditioning program, implement best practice throughout the program to ensure player safety and injury prevention which includes the measurement and monitoring of training load. A plan is developed in conjunction with other members of the coaching staff because the design of a physical preparation program is influenced by not only the broad physical demands of the sport, but also the specific tactical strategies and style of play the head coach wants their team to demonstrate. Additionally, the strength/weaknesses of all aspects of performance (technical, tactical, physical and mental) of individual players that need to be addressed to help the athlete perform optimally have been discussed as a collective coaching staff. The S&C coach is responsible for the physical preparation of the athlete/athletes for the duration of the season and is not only informed by objective assessments of physical qualities and the load associated with training but also through formal and informal discussions with the athlete and other members of the coaching and sports medicine staff. These are influences of the physical preparation program that the independent S&C coach would not have access to, and ultimately presents a challenge for prescribing an appropriate training stimulus.
The club S&C needs to present all of this information to their athletes and educate them on the program so that the athlete understands why they are doing certain things.
Athlete buy in is the key!

The athlete:
You should trust that your club S&C coach has been put in the role or a reason. They have written a program which they think will work best for you.
If you have any questions in regards to the program don’t be afraid to ask, it is crucial that you understand the program!
Skill wise, you are always seeking guidance to help with improvement, do the same for your physical prep.
If you don’t have access to a gym, talk to the S&C coach and organise the best option for you. They might recommend a certain facility to suss out. Still following the prescribed program set out for you.

From a Private S&C facilities:
First of all I think that this can work! But….. Communication is the key!! It can work if the private S&C makes contact with the club S&C to find out what program the athlete should be following. More often than not we are all working towards to one goal so just make sure everyone is on the same page.

Where things can go wrong:
If the Private S&C makes no contact with the Club S&C – is using a program that clashes with the work that the athlete is doing at training and in games.
If a Private S&C approaches the athlete to come and train with them but never makes contact with the club or tries to understand all of the extra training requirements.

What about during the Offseason when the athlete is given a break from their club?
I think you will find most clubs encourage their athletes to take a break from their normal training environment to ‘freshen’ up for a few weeks. This is still a very vital time for the athlete’s preparation and needs to be done correctly.
It can be an opportunity for the athletes to go train at a new facility, but if they do, should be encouraged to keep the club S&C in the loop. Private S&C should try and contact the club to double check what the athlete can and cant do.

This turned a lot longer than what I was first thinking. Hopefully it all makes sense.

At the end of the day if the private S&C injures the contracted athlete, it still falls on the Club S&C……..

Let the club S&C do their job – trust their skills. Secondly communication is the key!!! No different if the athlete is playing junior footy at a TAC cup club that has a S&C coach or if they are a full time professional athlete playing for the Melbourne Vixens Netball.

Like I said this is just my opinion – keen for some others to share their thoughts on the topic.

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ASCA conference highlights

Since the ASCA 2015 Conference, I thought I would share some of the take home messages:

“Spend less time explaining and more time coaching. Make programs simple enough so the athlete can understand” Brendyn Appleby

“Weaker athletes require longer rest after completion of a conditioning activity before undergoing a performance activity”
Greg Haff

“Its not how many drills i give you, its how well you do the drills i give you” Loren Landow

“I don’t need my athletes to do extraordinary things, just ordinary things extraordinarily well!” Loren Landow

“Train the adaptation, not the exercise!” Alex Wolf

Great practical insights into the Michigan University Strength and Conditioning with Bo Sandoval


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Football Pre-Season — Nat Fyfe transformation

After the massive success that Nat Fyfe has just achieved by wining the Brownlow medal, I thought I would have a look into why he is so successful…

When Fyfe was drafted to Fremantle in 2010 he weighed 74 kg, and in season 2015 he was at a playing weight of 88kg. This transformation has been a growing process from the moment he entered the club, always keen to go the extra mile to improve as a footballer.
Jason Weber is the High Performance Manager at Fremantle and he has been the biggest influence on Fyfe’s physical development.

Earlier this year Sam Lane wrote an article about Fyfe’s rapid rise to the top of the AFL, here are a few key quotes from the piece:

“Jason [Weber] asked me what I wanted to become and I said I wanted to become more like Patrick Dangerfield. As in I want to be able to fend people off, and I want to be explosive when I take off with the ball. I’m not quick, but I want to be quick over a couple of metres. And I really want to stand up in tackles like Chris Judd did for so long.
“From there we got to work on a lot of specific speed and power work with legs. A lot of split squats, single leg press, double leg press to get overall strength up. And then there was speed power, so lateral hops, explosive lunge exercises, a lot of weighted exercises with vests and things like that. Not so much working on machines, but more things that are specific to explosive acceleration.
“My end of the bargain was to trust him 100 per cent. And I did. And on the track, and in my figure, I was able to see and feel shifts in my speed and power … It was really empowering.
“When we started match simulation it came to life. I was able to accelerate away from people, I was able to shrug people off. People couldn’t pull me to ground. So that’s part of the transformation and there’s still a long way to go.”

This little insight shows the importance of a well structured program!! In particular the emphasis that elite level footballers place on lower body strength training. As Fyfe explains, he bought into the program, trusted the process in place and everything came to action when the game play was introduced.

As everyone starts to think about season 2016, make sure you put some thought into how you are preparing for it all.
Fyfe is one great example of the benefits of putting in the hard work to complete a well structured program!

Here is the link to the full article –

Jason Weber is a legend of the strength and conditioning field having worked with many elite sports in particular the Australian Wallabies and Fremantle Dockers.
He also has a business – Old Bull Fitness

#RADcentre #fyfe #oldbullfitness #preseason #strengthtraining #dockers

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Speed development

Speed development

There are a number of ways an athlete can express ‘Speed’. Because of this ‘speed’ is broken into multiple sub qualities:

• Reaction = the ability to react quickly to an opponent or to stimuli which may be auditory, visual, or kinaesthetic. Intercepting a pass, or reacting to a team mates call.
• Agility = A rapid whole body change of direction or speed in response to a stimulus, open skill. An attacker evading an opponent to score a goal.
• Change of direction speed = the ability to rapidly change direction while maintaining good body mechanics/coordination, closed skill. Weaving in and out of cones in a preplanned movement.
• Acceleration = the rate of change in velocity. In field/court sports this often not from a stationary start more often it is from rolling starts, and striding starts. Therefor need to train this way.
• Maximum velocity = Highest speed or velocity attained during a speed episode. Typically occurs between 30 to 40 m in a field sport athlete, May be 50 to 70 in a track & field athlete
• Speed-endurance = the ability to repeat speed efforts with limited diminishment of performance. Repeatedly being able to sprint up and down the basketball court.

Does your training program take into account all of the different sub qualities of Speed that are important for your sport?